tertindih mahluk gaib saat tidur….


fuseli_nightmare-1781

Saat tidur tertindih hantu, sakit plus menakutkan. Gimana ngga, kalo seluruh tubuh kaku tak bisa digerakkan seperti tertimpa beban berat sampe nafas pun sulit ditambah bayangan hitam tepat 50 cm di di atas muka. Itu semua adalah penderitaan yang aku alami dari kecil…. Nah skrng aq ud remaja..ud mampu utk melogikakan suatu probem…maka tak henti2 aq mencari informasi ttg tertindih tsb..sampe akhirnya aku nemuin pengetahuan yang membuatku merasa bahwa tertindih karena makhluk gaib itu salah, itu adalah sleep paralysis.. Dan pengetahuan itu dari pada hanya tersimpan di file notebook ku..aku berfikir lagi untuk menuliskannya dalam blog ku ini…mdh2an ini bisa bermanfaat….

Sleep paralysis

Sleep paralysis is a condition that may occur in normal subjects or be associated with narcolepsy, cataplexy, and hypnagogic hallucinations. The pathophysiology of this condition is closely related to the normal hypotonia that occur during REM sleep. When considered to be a disease, isolated sleep paralysis is classified as MeSH D020188. Some evidence suggests that it can also, in some cases, be a symptom of migraine.

Symptoms and characteristics

Physiologically, sleep paralysis is closely related to the paralysis that occurs as a natural part of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, which is known as REM atonia. Sleep paralysis occurs when the brain awakes from a REM state, but the body paralysis persists. This leaves the person fully conscious, but unable to move. The paralysis can last from several seconds to several minutes “after which the individual may experience panic symptoms and the realization that the distorted perceptions were false”. When there is an absence of narcolepsy, sleep paralysis is referred to as isolated sleep paralysis (ISP). “ISP appears to be far more common and recurrent among blacks than among whites or Nigerian blacks”, and is often referred to within black communities as “the Devil on your back”

In addition, the paralysis state may be accompanied by terrifying hallucinations (hypnopompic or hypnagogic) and an acute sense of danger. Sleep paralysis is particularly frightening to the individual due to the vividness of such hallucinations. The hallucinatory element to sleep paralysis makes it even more likely that someone will interpret the experience as a dream, since completely fanciful, or dream-like, objects may appear in the room alongside one’s normal vision. Some scientists have proposed this condition as an explanation for alien abductions and ghostly encounters. A study by Susan Blackmore and Marcus Cox of the University of the West of England supports the suggestion that reports of alien abductions are related to sleep paralysis rather than to temporal lobe lability.

Possible causes

Sleep paralysis occurs during REM sleep, thus preventing the body from manifesting movements made in the subject’s dreams. Very little is known about the physiology of sleep paralysis. However, some have suggested that it may be linked to post-synaptic inhibition of motor neurons in the pons region of the brain. In particular, low levels of melatonin may stop the depolarization current in the nerves, preventing the stimulation of the muscles and any consequent enactment of the dream activity by the body (e.g. preventing a sleeper from flailing his legs when dreaming about running).

Several studies have concluded that many or most people will experience sleep paralysis at least once or twice in their lives. A study conducted by Sedaghat F. et al. has investigated the prevalence of sleep paralysis among Iranian medical students. 24.1% of students reported experiencing sleep paralysis at least once in their lifetime. The same result was reported among Japanese, Nigerian, Kuwaiti, Sudanese and American students.

Many people who commonly enter sleep paralysis also suffer from narcolepsy. In non-Nigerian blacks, panic disorder occurs with sleep paralysis more frequently than in Caucasians. Some reports read that various factors increase the likelihood of both paralysis and hallucinations. These include.

  • Sleeping in a face upwards or supine position
  • Irregular sleeping schedules; naps, sleeping in, sleep deprivation
  • Increased stress
  • Sudden environmental/lifestyle changes
  • A lucid dream that immediately precedes the episode.

Treatment

Treatment starts with patient education about sleep stages and about the muscle atonia that is typically associated with REM sleep. For most healthy individuals, avoiding chronic sleep deprivation is enough to relieve symptoms. It is recommended that patients be evaluated for narcolepsy if symptoms persist.

Related phenomena

Many perceptions associated with sleep paralysis (visceral buzzing, loud sounds, adrenal mental state, presences, and the paralysis itself) also constitute a common phase in the early progression of episodes referred to as out of body experiences. Mental focus varies between the two conditions; paralysis sufferers tend to fixate on reestablishing operation of the body, whereas subjects of out-of-body episodes are more occupied by perceived non-equivalence with the body.

References

  • Culhane-Pera, Kathie (2003). Healing by Heart: Clinical and Ethical Case Stories of Hmong Families and Western Providers. Vanderbilt University Press.
  • Bower, Bruce (July 9, 2005). “Night of the Crusher.” Science News.
  • Conesa, J. (2000). Geomagnetic, cross-cultural and occupational faces of sleep paralysis: An ecological perspective. Sleep and Hypnosis, 2, (3), 105-111.
  • Conesa, J. (2002). Isolated Sleep Paralysis and Lucid Dreaming: Ten-year longitudinal case study and related dream frequencies, types, and categories. Sleep and Hypnosis, 4, (4), 132-143.
  • Conesa, J. (2003). Sleep Paralysis Signaling (SPS) As A Natural Cueing Method for the Generation and Maintenance of Lucid Dreaming. Presented at The 83rd Annual Convention of the Western Psychological Association, May 1 – 4, 2003 in Vancouver, BC, Canada.
  • Conesa-Sevilla, Jorge (2004). Wrestling With Ghosts: A Personal and Scientific Account of Sleep Paralysis. Pennsylvania: Xlibris/Randomhouse.
  • Firestone M. The “Old Hag”: sleep paralysis in Newfoundland. The Journal of Psychoanalytic Anthropology 1985; 8:47-66.
  • Fukuda K, Miyasita A, Inugami M, Ishihara K. High prevalence of isolated sleep paralysis: kanashibari phenomenon in Japan. Sleep 1987; 10:279-286.
  • Hartmann E. The nightmare: the psychology and biology of terrifying dreams. New York:Basic,1984.
  • Hufford D.J. The terror that comes in the night: an experience-centered study of supernatural assault traditions. Philadelphia:University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982
  • Kettlewell, N; Lipscomb, S; Evans, E. (June, 1993). “Differences in neuropsychological correlates between normals and those experiencing “Old Hag Attacks’.” Perceptual and Motor Skills. 76 (3 Pt 1): 839-45; discussion 846. PMID 8321596
  • Ness RC. “The Old Hag” phenomenon as sleep paralysis: a bicultural interpretation. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 1978; 2:15-39.
  • Ohayon MM, Zulley J, Guilleminault C, Smirne, S. Prevalence and pathologic associations of sleep paralysis in the general population. Neurology, 1999; 52:1194-1200.
  • Sagan, Carl (1997). The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark.
  • Schneck JM. Sleep paralysis and microsomatognosia with special reference to hypnotherapy. The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 1977; XXV:72-77.
  • Takeuchi T, Miyasita A, Sasaki Y, Inugami M, Fukuda K. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption. American Sleep Disorders Association and Sleep Research Society, 1992; 15: 217-225.
tertindih mahluk gaib saat tidur….

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